Morgan M J, Medford A R, Newsome P, 1995, "The orthogonal orientation shift and spatial filtering" Perception 24(5) 513 – 524
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The orthogonal orientation shift and spatial filtering
Michael J Morgan, Andrew R Medford, Philip Newsome
Received 24 November 1993, in revised form 3 November 1994
Abstract. A line abutting two tilted flanks is apparently shifted towards the orientation orthogonal to the flanks and at the same time is reduced in its apparent length. It has been suggested that both effects are caused by band-pass spatial filtering, followed by location of the end points of the line at the peaks in the filtered image. Here implications of the filtering explanation of these effects are explored further. In the first experiment, it was predicted that orientation thresholds (as opposed to biases) would be increased for short line lengths, and would be further increased by abutting bars. The predictions were confirmed. It was shown in experiment 2 that the orientation shift was reduced by a small (4 min arc) gap between target lines and orthogonal flanks. In experiment 3 the threshold elevations and the orientation shift produced by orthogonal and tilted flanks were compared. Last, in experiment 4, the threshold elevations and orientation shift produced by orthogonal and tilted flanks, at different retinal eccentricities varying from 0 to 3.2 deg were compared, and the prediction that the magnitude of the orientation shift would decrease with line length and increase with eccentricity was confirmed. The connection is explored between the orientation shift and the Zöllner illusion, and demonstrations are presented of the Zöllner effect in which target and inducing lines are of opposite contrast on a gray background. It is concluded that the Judd and Zöllner illusions do not depend upon a single mechanism.
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